Tagged with " research"
Dec 10, 2016 - College Basics    Comments Off on Problem-Solution Paper Guidelines

Problem-Solution Paper Guidelines

You will be writing a short problem-solution essay of your own which incorporates research material to define a problem of your choice, explore potential solutions, and lead to a conclusion in which you promote one selected solution as the most efficient choice.

STEP ONE: DEFINE THE PROBLEM
First, you must define, or draw a boundary around, the problem you will be exploring. “Environmental change” is too big, but “negative effects of overdevelopment” is more manageable. “Politics” is too broad, but “increasing voter participation” is clearer and easier to discuss. You may use some research material here to help define your problem, like statistics that reveal the decline in voter participation rates or quotations from policy experts on overbuilding in sensitive environmental areas. This section provides a frame of reference for the paper as a whole and should inform the reader about the aspect of the problem you wish to address.

STEP TWO: EXPLORE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS
In this section of the paper, you will explain two or three potential solutions that should lessen the overall effects of the problem you identified. None of the problems you selected  can be solved by one simple solution (if they could be, we’d have fixed them already!). Instead, you will talk about some potential solutions that should mitigate, or lessen, the problem as a whole. For the voting problem, this might include a “motor voter” law that makes it easy for people to register to vote while they are renewing a driver’s license, making Election Day a national holiday so people are free to go to the polls, or changing our voting method to mail ballots or secure electronic voting. All of the solutions you suggest should include research information that explains why the solution is viable and what effect the selected solution can have or will have on the problem you have defined.

STEP THREE: SELECT THE BEST SOLUTION
Out of the solutions you have discussed, you need to choose one as the best solution to your problem. Note that this is not the only solution, but the one you think will have the strongest or most positive impact on your original problem. In this section of the paper, you will use your research to back up your conclusion. Explain why this choice is the best one. What effects has this solution had in other circumstances? Is this solution being implemented somewhere else in a positive way? What results have occurred?

Your finished paper should meet the following guidelines:

  • Typed, double-spaced, 12 pt. standard font
  • 2-3 pages of text
  • Research information should be cited internally using MLA format (quick guidelines here)
  • Works Cited page at the end in proper format listing the sources you have used in the paper

Your final paper should be uploaded to Google Classroom no later than Friday, December 16. Remember to revise and proofread before submitting!

Oct 17, 2014 - Honors IV    Comments Off on Argument Paper Source List

Argument Paper Source List

sources

Once you have completed your paper, you must include a list of the sources you cite within it. Any information you include that is new to you must be cited properly whether you paraphrase it or not! The sources you select should be listed on a separate, final page of your paper called the Works Cited page.

To format your Works Cited page, follow these instructions:

1. Title the page WORKS CITED (use all caps).

2. Double space the page.

3. List the sources you used in alphabetical order by last name. Although on future papers you will be expected to create proper citations, for this paper you may copy and paste from the list below.

4. Your list must be formatted with a hanging indent. The first line should be flush left with the margin. Each successive line should be indented one-half inch. If you use Word, select the entries and move the bottom triangle of the margin indicator over to the half-inch mark.

 

Dweck, Carol S.. “The Secret to Raising Smart Kids.” from Florida Collections Grade 12. 1st Ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014. 21-26. Print.

Gladwell, Malcolm. “Marita’s Bargain.” from Florida Collections Grade 12. 1st Ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014. 3-14. Print.

Gutierrez, R. N. “Why We Need Common Core: “I choose C.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 27 August 2012. Web. 1 Sept. 2014.

Lively, Penelope. “Next Term We’ll Mash You,” from Collections: Close Reader Grade 12. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. 11-16. Print.

McRaven, Adm. William. “Admiral McRaven addresses the University of Texas at Austin Class of 2014.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 23 May. 2014. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.

Robinson, Sir Ken. “RSA Animate – Changing Education Paradigms.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 14 October. 2010. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

Tough, Paul. “Kewauna’s Ambition” from How Children Succeed. Qtd. in Collections: Close Reader Grade 12. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. 3-6. Print.

Wade, Lisa. “10 Things Every College Professor Hates.” Sociological Images. 26 Aug. 2014. Web. 4 Sept. 2014. <http://www.businessinsider.com/10-things-every-college-professor-hates-2014-8>.

REMEMBER: Your in-paper citations should include the last name of the author of your source. If it is a print source, the citation should include the last name and page number.

Oct 13, 2014 - Honors IV    Comments Off on Incorporating Sources: Argument Paper

Incorporating Sources: Argument Paper

Young woman behind booksAs you create the rough draft of your paper, you must incorporate source material from your notes. Any information you include that is new to you must be cited properly whether you paraphrase it or not! The instructions below will help you work with your source materials so you can include your research properly and avoid plagiarism.

PRINT SOURCES
Print sources require that you cite not only the author name but also the page number the information is found on. Here are some examples from a print article about the Titanic disaster.

ORIGINAL SOURCE
The Titanic had carried boats enough for 1,178 persons, only one-third of her capacity. Her sixteen boats and four collapsibles had saved but 711 persons; 400 people had needlessly lost their lives. (Hanson Baldwin, “R.M.S. Titanic,” from Readings for Writers, Ed. Jo Ray McCuen and Anthony C. Winkler, p. 355)

You must cite the source when you paraphrase information from the source:
Although Titanic had lifeboats, they would only hold one-third of her passengers. (Baldwin 355)

When you include a small portion or snippet of the original source, place the citation as close as possible to the quoted material:
Titanic’s lifeboats had space “enough for 1,178 persons,” (Baldwin 355) but most of them were left unfilled.

When quoting directly from the source, include quotation marks and list the citation at the end:
“Titanic had carried boats enough for 1,178 persons, only one-third of her capacity.” (Baldwin 355)

You may also include the name of the source in the sentence introducing the quotation, but you still need to cite the page number at the end:
According to Baldwin, “Titanic had carried boats enough for 1,178 persons, only one-third of her capacity.” (355)

Print sources for this paper include “Kewauna’s Ambition” and “Next Term We’ll Mash You” (Close Reader), and “Marita’s Bargain” and “How to Build a Smarter Student” in the textbook.

ONLINE SOURCES
Online sources vary in how they are to be cited. Since online sources have no page numbers, you will generally cite information by using the author’s name alone. Here is a sample from an online source with a listed author:
The full citation for this page reads:
Molony, Senan. “Lifeboats Extinguished Their Lights!” Encyclopedia Titanica. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.encyclopedia titanica.org/titanic lifeboats-extinguished-their-lights.html>.

ORIGINAL SOURCE
Lifeboats from the Titanic extinguished their lights in order not to become attractive beacons for swimmers after the sinking.
They cut themselves off from sight, and the grim truth is that they thereby callously cut off the lives of their former shipmates.

Citation using quoted text:
People in the lifeboats were afraid their boats would be swamped by others in the water, so they “extinguished their lights in order not to become attractive beacons for swimmers.” (Molony)

Some websites, however, do not contain author names. Their citations work a bit differently. The following information was found online at http://www.rmstitanic.net/learning-center/history/timeline.html
The full citation for this page reads:
“Titanic Timeline.” Learning Center. RMS Titanic, Inc., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.rmstitanic.net/learning- center/history/timeline.html>.

ORIGINAL SOURCE
April 15th, 1912, 12:45 am:
First lifeboat leaves the Ship with only 19 aboard, although it could carry 65.

How to cite the source using a paraphrase:
At 12:45 am, the first lifeboat left the ship carrying only 19 passengers, although its capacity was 65. (“Titanic Timeline”)

The “10 Things College Professors Hate” article came from an online source.

YOUTUBE VIDEOS
If you plan to use information from either the Sir Ken Robinson video or the graduation speech from Adm. McRaven, you will need to cite it using the following model:

Shimabukuro, Jake. “Ukulele Weeps by Jake Shimabukuro.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 22 Apr. 2006. Web. 9 Sept. 2010. [The difference in the two dates is that the first is the creation date of the clip, while the second is the date you accessed it.]

The citation itself would include the last name only:
Spending the day as a “sugar cookie,” with your uniform and body covered in wet sand, teaches you that nothing ever goes as planned, even when you think you’re prepared. (McRaven)

Transcripts of both of these videos are available online if you search for the title and author of the video and include the word transcript.

Nov 12, 2013 - Honors IV    Comments Off on Research Paper: Working with Sources

Research Paper: Working with Sources

As you create the rough draft of your paper, you must incorporate source material from your notes. Remember, any information you include that is new to you must be cited properly whether you paraphrase it or not! The instructions below will help you work with your source materials so you can include your research properly and avoid plagiarism.

PRINT SOURCES
Print sources require that you cite not only the author name but also the page number the information is found on. Here are some examples from a print article about the Titanic disaster.

ORIGINAL SOURCE
The Titanic had carried boats enough for 1,178 persons, only one-third of her capacity. Her sixteen boats and four collapsibles had saved but 711 persons; 400 people had needlessly lost their lives. (Hanson Baldwin, “R.M.S. Titanic,” from Readings for Writers, Ed. Jo Ray McCuen and Anthony C. Winkler, p. 355)

You must cite the source when you paraphrase information from the source:
Although Titanic had lifeboats, they would only hold one-third of her passengers. (Baldwin 355)

When you include a small portion or snippet of the original source, place the citation as close as possible to the quoted material:
Titanic’s lifeboats had space “enough for 1,178 persons,” (Baldwin 355) but most of them were left unfilled.

When quoting directly from the source, include quotation marks and list the citation at the end:
“Titanic had carried boats enough for 1,178 persons, only one-third of her capacity.” (Baldwin 355)

You may also include the name of the source in the sentence introducing the quotation, but you still need to cite the page number at the end:
According to Baldwin, “Titanic had carried boats enough for 1,178 persons, only one-third of her capacity.” (355)

ONLINE SOURCES
Online sources vary in how they are to be cited. Since online sources have no page numbers, you will generally cite information by using the author’s name alone. Here is a sample from an online source with a listed author:
The full citation for this page reads:
Molony, Senan. “Lifeboats Extinguished Their Lights!” Encyclopedia Titanica. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.encyclopedia titanica.org/titanic lifeboats-extinguished-their-lights.html>.

ORIGINAL SOURCE
Lifeboats from the Titanic extinguished their lights in order not to become attractive beacons for swimmers after the sinking.
They cut themselves off from sight, and the grim truth is that they thereby callously cut off the lives of their former shipmates.

Citation using quoted text:
People in the lifeboats were afraid their boats would be swamped by others in the water, so they “extinguished their lights in order not to become attractive beacons for swimmers.” (Molony)

Some websites, however, do not contain author names. Their citations work a bit differently. The following information was found online at http://www.rmstitanic.net/learning-center/history/timeline.html
The full citation for this page reads:
“Titanic Timeline.” Learning Center. RMS Titanic, Inc., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.rmstitanic.net/learning- center/history/timeline.html>.

ORIGINAL SOURCE
April 15th, 1912, 12:45 am:
First lifeboat leaves the Ship with only 19 aboard, although it could carry 65.

How to cite the source using a paraphrase:
At 12:45 am, the first lifeboat left the ship carrying only 19 passengers, although its capacity was 65. (“Titanic Timeline”)

Nov 8, 2013 - Honors IV    Comments Off on Research Paper: Structuring the Writing

Research Paper: Structuring the Writing

revision

Now that you’ve gathered source material and have a good idea about the relationship between between your stated problem and your chosen solution, it’s time to get your ducks in order. A strong underlying structure is the key to a well-written paper. It also makes the writing process easier, since your structure creates a “road map” of sorts for what to write about next.

Although some students like to work from diagrams, many prefer a formal outline to help them organize their thinking. Here I will create an outline based on our original problem –>solution map with additional explanations of each part of the outline.

Outline

Introduction

I.   Define the Problem

II.   Potential Solutions

A. Solution A
B. Solution B

III.   Selected Solution

A. Why it’s the best choice
B. Expected outcome

Conclusion

Explanations

INTRODUCTION – Your opening paragraph has two jobs: spur interest in your choice of topic and introduce your thesis. The thesis statement is, essentially, the answer you have arrived at for your original research question. Your thesis does not have to be super-specific (that’s the job of the body of the paper), but it should give the reader a good idea of how you will be developing the paper.

DEFINE THE PROBLEM – This section should define which aspect of the problem you will be focusing on in the paper. For example, if you’re writing about schools, you’re not going to list everything that might be an issue with schools right now. You might want to look at inequities between schools, perhaps, or what kind of effect standardized testing is having on daily curriculum, or how the school day and year are arranged and whether those are beneficial for learning. Whatever your choice, you should include enough information so that someone who is not familiar with your particular issue has a decent grasp of what you want to talk about.

POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS – Here, you list the solutions for your problem as they have been proposed by various groups. You should present a minimum of two potential solutions. You may have more, depending on your problem, but you should not have fewer. Using the school day example above, I might talk about varying school starting times (high school starting later in the day, or double sessions, or course selection more like a college campus), or even changing the school year (online choices, year-round school, trimesters, etc.). Your number of solutions will be determined by the research you have done. However many you present, keep the information as balanced as you can.

SELECTED SOLUTION – In this section of the paper, you go into more detail about your chosen solution. Why is this solution preferable over the other possibilities? If this solution were implemented, what benefits or changes should someone expect to see? I might decide–even if don’t like the idea personally–that we need to change the start time of high school to later in the day to accommodate teens’ need for sleep. If I choose this as my solution, I should also have information showing how it will work and why it will be a better choice than another alternative. This will be the most focused and detailed section of your paper.

CONCLUSION – The conclusion should wrap up the paper. It works well if it echoes what’s in the introductory paragraph. It doesn’t have to repeat elements (you don’t have to recopy the thesis), but it should refer to the initial idea and reinforce why your chosen solution is a logical and thoughtful approach to the problem.

Sorting your research notes and assigning them to the appropriate parts of your outline will help you see if you need to review or revisit sections of your paper for additional source material. Some students find it helpful to color-code sections of their outline, then do the same with individual notes to see how much material is available for incorporation and commentary.

As always, be sure to ask questions if you get stuck!

Oct 11, 2013 - Honors IV    Comments Off on Organizing Your Research

Organizing Your Research

The key to a solid research paper is organization. If you can find and retrieve your source information quickly and easily, the process of working with the sources and pulling good information for the writing is exponentially easier. Here is a brief roundup of methods you might consider as you gather your information.

OLD SCHOOL

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-w2_bQjzXH6Y/T-5AG1vZ9rI/AAAAAAAACGU/smvKgbyWuiQ/s1600/index+cards.jpgNote cards
There’s a reason why note cards are so popular. They’re cheap, portable, and easy to rearrange to help you organize your thinking. Note card users will make two kinds of cards: SOURCE cards and NOTE cards. Source cards contain all the bibliographic information about the source: the author, source, publisher or URL, etc. in proper MLA format. Note cards contain snippets–individual notes or quotes from your source materials. Keep these small. If you find yourself copying whole paragraphs, you’re not reading closely enough! Strip out the extraneous information and write down the most important. Be sure to transcribe accurately! Each notecard should contain a keyword or symbol so you know which source the note came from. Consider color-coding your cards, one color for your source cards and the other for the notes you take from the sources.

 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Highlighter_pen_-photocopied_text-9Mar2009.jpgSingle Sheets
Another tried-and-true way to organize your research is to keep hard copies of your source information. With this method, you have a couple of options. You can photocopy pages from books and magazines or print out webpage information, then use highlighters to select the information you wish to use within the paper. One way to create a hard copy if you don’t have access to a copier is to download the CamScanner app. This app will allow you to take a picture with your smartphone, then convert it into a .pdf that you can save and print later. Be sure to write the full bibliographic information at the top of each source page to save yourself some time once you begin to compile your Works Cited page.

If you’re working with books, you can also keep handwritten notes. Use one sheet of paper for each source. Write the page number in the left margin and the notes on the right. Skip lines between notes to keep things organized. As you would with copies, write the full bibliographic information at the top of the sheet.

 

NEW SCHOOL

http://blogs.cofc.edu/tlt/files/2013/08/dropbox-logo.pngDropbox
Dropbox is free cloud-based storage. You earn 2 GB of free space when you sign up for a Dropbox account, plenty of room for any research you might find: pictures, notes, .pdf and Word files, audio clips–if you can save it to a flash drive, you can save it in your Dropbox!

Dropbox is a great solution if you are in the habit of saving things into folders or onto flash drives. It’s accessible on any Internet-connected device, including smartphones and tablets. A free app is available for all platforms. Everything in your Dropbox is private and secure, but you do have the option to share folders if you’re working with a team or it’s time to let me review your work for a grade. Here’s how you share a folder:

1. Go to your list of files and folders and select the folder you want to share by clicking on the empty space to the right of the folder’s name. (Clicking on the folder name or icon will open the folder instead.)
If the folder is currently unshared, click Invite to folder in the toolbar:

Click Invite to folder to share a folder the first time

2. If the folder is already being shared, click Shared folder options:

Click Shared folder options to invite more people

3. Enter the email addresses of the people you want to invite.
4. Add a personal message if you’d like and click Share folder.

Dropbox online
FREE iOS and Android apps

 

http://osx.wdfiles.com/local--files/icon:47e8a-evernote-icon-256/47e8a-Evernote-Icon-256.jpgEvernote
Evernote is a multi-platform notetaking program designed for people on the go. Like Dropbox, it is accessible through a web interface or through a smartphone or tablet app. Evernote live-syncs across all platforms to keep your information as up to date as possible. Evernote organizes notes into notebooks that you design. You could set up one notebook per class, or one for the research paper, or divide your research into separate notebooks–you have lots of flexibility.

Evernote has a number of add-ons that add functionality, such as the Skitch app, which allows you to annotate pictures and .pdfs, and (my favorite), the Evernote Web Clipper, a browser add-on that will clip web information and import it directly into your Evernote account as a new note.

Evernote gives you the flexibility to share notebooks with collaborators. If you choose this option, you will need to share your notebook with me when it’s time to grade your research. Here’s how you share a notebook:

1. Sign In to Evernote through your web browser.
2. Click the “Share” drop-down menu at the top-right corner of the window, and click “Share Notebooks.” If you are collaborating with a team, they will also need to share their notebooks in this same manner for you to view their shared notebooks.
3. Click the “Start Sharing” button to the right of the notebook that you wish to include in your collaboration.
4. Click the “Invite Individuals To Access This Notebook” link at the right side of the window.
5. Type the email address associated with the Evernote account of each person that you want to allow to view your notebook, then click “Send Invitations” at the bottom of the window. (See me if you are using Evernote, since my Evernote account is not set up with my school email address.) This will generate an email invitation that will be sent to the Evernote user’s email inbox. The email includes a link that must be clicked to accept the notebook invitation.
6. View notebooks that have been shared with you under the “Linked Notebooks” section at the left side of your Evernote screen. Any notes that you add to your shared notebook will be visible to your approved collaborators through this linked notebook.

Evernote online
FREE iOS and Android apps

 

http://d1hwvnnkb0v1bo.cloudfront.net/content/art/app/icons/studyblue_icon.jpgStudyBlue
Think of StudyBlue as notecards for the 21st century. StudyBlue allows you to create flashcards of information and sort and arrange them in a variety of ways. It’s excellent for helping you study terms (you can study traditionally or omit cards you’ve already learned from the review mode, take quizzes, and play games with the cards you create). You can also organize your research by keeping the source material on one side of the card and the note itself on the other.

Like Evernote and Dropbox, StudyBlue allows you to share your cards with others. To share:

1. In the My Backpack view, find your work that you would like to share, and click on the drop-down menu marked by an arrow on the far right side of the row of your flashcards.
2. Select Share via Email.
3. Enter the recipient’s information, and the flashcards will be sent directly to them.

StudyBlue online
FREE iOS and Android apps